Comparing 3 Models - Traditional, Carver and Complementary

If you’ve ever wondered what the fundamental differences are between the Traditional, Carver and Complementary Models, we have broken down the differences for you in the below comprehensive chart.

Traditional Traditional Complementary Complementary Carver Carver
Function Board role Staff role Board role Staff role Board role Staff role
Strategic Planning Approves Provides limited input Approves Provides input No role Prepares
Budget May prepare completely Prepares for approval by the board Approves Prepares for approval by the board No role Prepares
Day-To-Day Operations May have a role Has a role No role Makes all management decisions No role Makes all management decisions
Review of Financial Statements Reviews Balance Sheet and Income Statement Prepares for review Reviews periodic financial report that highlights variances from approved budget Prepares the financial report that highlights variances, for board review May have little or no role Prepares for staff review
Financial Policies Establishes all policies Provides advice on policies Sets some financial policies Sets subsidiary policies Sets some financial policies Sets subsidiary policies
Personnel Policies Establishes all policies Provides advice on policies No role Exclusive role Sets some personnel policies Sets subsidiary policies
Administration Policies Establishes all policies Provides advice on policies No role Exclusive role Sets some administration policies Sets subsidiary policies
Hiring of Staff Hires CEO and perhaps others Has a role below CEO level Hires only the CEO Hires subordinate staff Hires only the CEO Hires subordinate staff
Staff Salaries May set individual salaries Recommends Sets global budget and CEO salary Sets subordinate salaries Sets global budget and CEO salary Sets subordinate salaries
Firing of Staff May have a role Has a role No role except with regard to the CEO level Exclusive role below the CEO level No roleexcept with regard to the CEO level Exclusive role below the CEO level
Staff Evaluations CEO appraisal often verbal or not done at all. May evaluate non-CEO staff Has a role in evaluating subordinates Evaluates against CEO Code of Conduct and annual goals Exclusive role below the CEO level Evaluates CEO against Ends and Executive Limitations Exclusive role below CEO level
Staff Grievances May have a role Has a role No role Exclusive role Court of last appeal Handles- unless the staff grieves to the board
Title of Senior Staff Person Varies widely– often but typically not President or CEO CEO, sometimes also called Executive Director, Registrar, or President Varies widely– CEO, Executive Director, Registrar, or President
Committees All report to board None report to Exec. Dir. Some report to board Some report to CEO Some report to board Some report to CEO
Board Manual Lengthy – includes board policies and staff office procedures Short – contains governing policies, mission, history, governance description, committee terms of reference, and legal documents Two separate documents: Board Policy Manual, andStaff Policy & Procedures Manual Short – four types of policies:
1. Ends2. Executive limitations3. Board/Exec. Dir.4. Board governance process
Conflict of Interest Policy Maybe Yes Maybe
Volunteer Appraisal System No Yes Maybe
Executive Committee Yes Maybe. If yes, its role is clear and limited No
Board Meetings Deal with policy and admin. matters Shorter – deal only with policy matters and performance monitoring Shorter – deal only with policy matters and performance monitoring